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The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay.Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II.After the transfer the old Federal District (1891–1960) became Guanabara state, the only city-state Brazil ever had so far.This existed from 1960 until 1975 when it merged with Rio de Janeiro state. Located in the Central Plateau of the Brazilian Highlands, the Federal District is divided into 31 administrative regions, and contains the Brazilian capital city, Brasília, which is also the seat of the three branches of the federal government of Brazil (legislative, executive and judiciary).The capital of Brazil was transferred from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília on 21 April 1960 and its new territory was split off from Goiás.With the merge, the capital was transferred back from Niterói to Rio de Janeiro, as it was until 1834 when the empire created the neutral municipality.The region has a tropical savanna climate ("Aw" according to the Köppen system), with a rainy season from October to April, and a dry season from May to September.
The new country was huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse.This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire.The current Constitution of Brazil was drafted as a reaction to the period of military dictatorship, and sought to guarantee individual rights and restrict the state's ability to limit freedom, to punish offences and to regulate individual life.
Among the new constitutional guarantees are the errand of injunction and the habeas data.Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system.